Sherif El-Refai a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Kentucky (UK), Sherif El-Refai focused his studies on clinical and experimental therapeutics. Sherif El-Refai also worked as an oncology pharmacist at UK Hospital’s Markey Cancer Center, where he published an article in early 2017 advocating for vaccination and screening to prevent cervical cancer.
Cervical malignancy/ cancer appears frequently when abnormal cells on the cervix grow out of control. The cervix is considered as the lowest part of the uterus which opens into a vagina. Cervical cancer can be dealt if identified at an early stage. It can be detected by a Pap test.
What causes cervical cancer?
Most cervical cancer is caused by a virus named as human papillomavirus or HPV. One can get HPV by having sexual contact with someone who has it. There are numerous varieties of the HPV virus. Not all varieties of HPV cause cervical cancer. A maximum number causes genital warts, whereas other types may not cause any symptoms.
Cervical cancer can frequently be avoided by having regular screenings to discover precancers and treat them. counteracting precancers implies controlling conceivable risk factors, such as:
- Delaying first sexual intercourse until the late teens or older
- Limiting the number of sex partners
- Avoiding sexual intercourse with people who have had many partners
- Avoiding sexual intercourse with people who are obviously infected with genital warts or show other symptoms
- Quitting smoking
Screening is used to look for cancer or abnormalities that may become cancerous before you have any symptoms or signs. A researcher has created, and keep on developing, tests that can be utilized to screen a person for specific types of cancer before signs or manifestations show up. The general objective of malignancy screening is to:
- Reduce the number of people who die from cancer, or completely eliminate deaths from cancer
- Reduce the number of people who develop the cancer
Sherif El-Refai further states that cervical cancer often does not exhibit any symptoms until its advanced stages. According to Sherif El-Refai, getting vaccinated and following up with regular screenings is the best way to prevent cervical cancer.
As a student in the pharmaceutical sciences PhD program at the University of Kentucky, Sherif El-Refai focused on experimental clinical treatments where he worked to assess individual genetic responses to targeted cancer therapies.
Targeted cancer therapies are drugs or different substances that hinders the development and spread of malignancy by meddling with particular molecules (“molecular targets”) that are engaged with the development, progression, and spread of Tumor. Targeted cancer therapies are sometimes called “molecularly targeted drugs,” “molecularly targeted therapies,” “precision medicines,” or similar names.
Targeted cancer therapies differ from standard chemotherapy in several ways:
- Targeted therapies act on specific molecular targets that are associated with cancer, whereas most standard chemotherapies act on all rapidly dividing normal and cancerous cells.
- Targeted therapies are deliberately choosen or designed to interact with their target, which many standard chemotherapies were identified because they kill cells.
- Targeted treatments are frequently cytostatic (that is they block tumor cell expansion), where as standard chemotherapy operators are cytotoxic (that is , they kill tumor cells).
- The development of targeted therapies requires the identification of good targets-that is targeting that play a key role in cancer cell growth and survival. (it is therefore that focused treatments are sometimes alluded to as the result of “rational” drug/ medication plan.)
Sherif El-Refai believed that one of the approaches to identify potential targets is to compare the amounts of individual proteins in cancer cells with those in normal cells. Proteins that are present in cancer cells but not normal cells or that are more abundant in cancer cells would be potential targets, especially if they are known to be involved in cell growth or survival.
Another approach to identify potential targets is to determine whether cancer cells produce mutant (altered) proteins that drive cancer progression. As a researcher, Sherif-El-Refai looked for abnormalities in chromosomes that are present in cancer cells but not in normal cells. Sometimes these chromosome abnormalities result in the creation of a fusion gene (a gene that incorporates parts of two different genes) whose product, called a fusion protein, may drive cancer development. Such combination proteins are potential targets for focused malignancy treatments.
Sherif El-Refai is an ambitious medical professional who recently established his career as a pharmacist in Jersey City. Trained and educated as a pharmacist, Sherif El-Refai has build a background with a graduate degree in business. He recently attended the University of Florida, where he earned a Master of Business Administration that focused on global management, marketing, and competitive strategy.
Besides committing to understand all the aspects of pharmacy, Sherif El-Refai gained experience in developing and submitting Business plans that incorporated pharmacy services into pre existing medical departments. He even completed independent research for the American Journal of Health-System Pharmacists and gained experience to hold a position of pharmacist from 2011-2012.
Since his earning as Doctor of Pharmacy at the University of North Carolina at Chapel hill (UNC-CH) in 2011, Sherif El-Refai gained professional experience in his role as pharmacist in Jersey City. As a UNC_CH student, Sherif El-Refai maintained a dean’s listing distinction, remarkably gaining determination to the National Society of Collegiate Scholars. Additionally he served as a member of the Clinical Discussion Group of Muslim Student Association.
Sherif El-Refai further initiated his UNC-CH research in 2005, where he finished his Bachelor of Science in Pharmaceutical Sciences and then later worked towards a doctorate on the Eshelman School of Pharmacy. During his course he received diverse professional experience serving as a Pharmacy Technician with Eckerd’s Pharmacy from 2006 to 2007.
Sherif El-Refai undertook numerous clerkships during his course of studies, initially completing his Introductory Hospital Experience Rotation at WakeMed Hospitals in Raleigh in 2008 where he subsequently finished his clerkships in the diverse practice areas of hematology/oncology, ambulatory care, inpatient remedy, and ICU trauma.
Sherif El-Refai even contributed to the advancement of his field through numerous research and by writing projects. Collaborating with his pharmacy supervisor, he researched and composed pamphlet for patients titled as “Daily Training Regimen for the Elderly.” he also created brochures on”Medication Therapy Management Services” and gave a presentation discussing the benefits of community partnerships.
With a doctor of pharmacy from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Sherif El-Refai is now working to earn a PhD in pharmaceutical sciences from the University of Kentucky. As a pharmacist Sherif El-Refai conducts lung cancer research and serves as an oncology pharmacist at the Black Lab, University of Kentucky’s Markey Cancer Center.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer worldwide.The major two forms of lung cancer are nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC=85%) of lung cancer and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC=15%). Despite recent advances in the management of resected lung cancer tumors and more effective treatments in the metastatic setting, the cure rate of lung cancer remains low. Successful molecular testing of lung cancer requires the identification and understanding of events that takes place during the multistep tumorigenic process of lung cancer. As with other solid tumors, lung cancer is the result of the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations over a long course of exposure to a carcinogen.
Discovering new prognostic or predictive biomarkers or developing new detection tools for lung cancer is one of the major areas of transitional cancer research. However, given our current understanding of the multifactorial process of lung carcinogenesis and hetrogeneous nature of the disease, monitoring of one or a few genes is limited. A pangenomic analysis seems more efficient for deciphering the complexity of lung cancer. The prospect of identifying specific events in lung carcinogenesis is significantly brightened by the recent development of high-throughput gene expression analysis.
Sherif El-Refai further tried to understand Gene expression, a biological process at the cellular level involves the conversion of DNA information into molecules such as proteins. The process that allowed the cells to adjust to their surroundings by controlling when and how many proteins are to be produced. The gene expression includes two stages: transcription and translation. During transcription, DNA information is copied to produce messenger RNA, which carries the information to protein-producing ribosomes in the cell. Carrier molecules read this information during the translation stage, and ribosomes use it to form a new protein.
Holding several advanced degrees in the area of pharmaceutical sciences, Sherif El-Refai devoted nearly 10 years of study to the eradication of cancer. In addition to serving in the University of Kanas College of Pharmacy Black Lab, where he conducted lung cancer research to assist in developing more efficient treatments, Sherif El-Refai serves the Markey Cancer Center in the position of oncology pharmacist.
In the study of lung cancer, several subsets of the disease exit. Researchers say that because of the existence of these multiple subsets, the approach of treating the disease should vary for each patient based on which subset their cancer falls into.
Cancer of the lung, like all cancers, results from an abnormality in the body’s basic unit of life, the cell. Normally, the body maintains a system of checks and balances on cell growth so that cells divide to produce new cells only when new cells are needed. Disruption of this system of checks and balances on cell growth results in an uncontrolled division and proliferation of cells that eventually forms a mass known as tumor.
Tumors can be benign or malignant; when we speak of “cancer,” we refer to those tumors that are malignant. Benign tumors usually can be removed and do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant tumors, on the other hand, often grow aggressively locally where they start, but tumor cells also can enter into the bloodstream or lymphatic system and then spread to other sites in the body. This process of spread is termed metastasis; the areas of tumor growth at these distant sites are called metastases.
Since lung cancer tends to spread or metastasize very early after it forms, it is a very life-threatening cancer and one of the most difficult cancers to treat. While lung cancer can spread to any organ in the body, certain locations — particularly the adrenal glands, liver, brain, and bones — are the most common sites for lung cancer metastasis. By knowing the makeup of each subset and how they react to each type of therapy, the research will aid in improving patient outcomes.
Sherif El-Refai is an accomplished researcher and pharmacist who holds a PhD from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and has even pursued his MBA from the University of Florida. When it comes to the level of proficiency in the field of pharmacy, Sherif El-Refai is committed to understanding all the aspects of the practice and has experience in developing and submitting business plans that incorporate pharmacy services into pre-existing medical departments. He holds certification in pharmacy-based immunization delivery; basic life support; and advanced cardiac life support, anticoagulation, hypertension and lipids, and diabetes.
As a pharmacist in Jersey City, Sherif El-Refai persued a particular interest in the treatment of cancer. A writer and presenter on the topic, Sherif El-Refai hoped to become a leading authority in chemotherapy and its use in complex cases. Further he broadened his experience that included pharmaceutical practice and research, while aiding significant discoveries in the field of pharmacogenomics.
As an active member of the American Pharmacists Association (APhA), Sherif El-Refai holds additional certifications in immunization, anticoagulation, and advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS). At ACLS classroom program they instructed the students in recognising both respiratory and cardiac arrest, iin additon to symptomatic bradycardia and other peri-arrest conditions. They also addressed early management strategies for these medical emergencies, as well as as airways management, and relevant pharmacology.
Additionally, the course assisted healthcare providers with respect to instances of strokes or acute coronary syndromes. Focusing on the importance of cooperation in cardiovascular life support, the educational program also helped to present strategies for effective communication and leadership while working with a resuscitation team.
Sherif El-Refai is a dedicated academic who has recently earned an MBA from the University of Florida. Here, he focused on marketing, competitive strategy, and global management. While managing his studies, he also handled the role of the Case Competition Club, which he revived to offer students an opportunity to apply problem-solving skills to real business cases.
Prior to earning an MBA, Sherif El-Refai earned a doctor of pharmacy and a Bachelor of Science in pharmaceutical sciences from the University of North Carolina. (UNC) at Chapel Hill. He gained experience in the pharmaceutical field by doing comprehensive research and service work with organizations such as the Institute for Pharmacogenomics & Individualized Therapy, and the Center for Pharmacogenomics’ Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research.
While working with the UNC Memorial Hospitals, he completed a comprehensive analysis if a specific treatment regimen for the company via Oncology, presented his findings to the company’s divisional board of directors, and induced the company to implement his recommended changes to the regimen.
Being an active member of the pharmaceutical industry, Sherif El-Refai has published research and performed presentations on a wide range of subjects, including Hypercalcemia of Malignancy. Besides being a renowned pharmacist,, he is also associated with the leading pharmacy organizations which adds five star to his profile. He also maintains memberships with the American Pharmacists Association, the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, and the North Carolina Association of Pharmacists.